Dictionary of Tropical Medicine

Japanese encephalitis

A flavivirus, related to Murray Valley virus (see Australian Encephalitis). Rice paddy-breeding Culicine mosquitoes, Culex tritaeniorhyehus, often transmit the disease. Mosquitoes are largely zoophilic. Occasionally Aedes spp and Anopholines implicated in transmission. Disease consists of prodrome, encephalitis and recovery (or death on average in 7%). Affects mostly children less than five years of age and leaves sequelae. A vaccination is available.


Deposition of bilirubin in the skin giving it and the scelerae of the eyes a yellow colour. Indicates a hepatitis.

Jet lag

A feeling of disorientation or tiredness which follows a long air journey. Jet lag is usually most pronounced when travelling from West to East over areas with time zone differences.


Colloquial term for Carybdea rastoni.